By alphabetical order:
- andromonoecious (plant)
andromonoïque (French), andromonoica (Spanish)
Plants producing both hermaphrodite and male (staminate) flowers on the same individual.
angiospermes (French), angiospermas (Spanish)
Group encompassing all seed-producing flowering plants. They are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within their seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. They are the most diverse group of land plants.
- annual (plant)
plantes annuelles (French), plantas anuales (Spanish)
Plants that complete their life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then die.
anthèse (French), antesis (Spanish)
Flowering period of a plant, from the opening of the flower bud.
- biennial (plant)
plantes bisannuelles (French), plantas bianuales (Spanish)
Plants that take two years, generally in a temperate climate, to complete their biological life cycle.
déhiscence (French), dehiscencia (Spanish)
Splitting of a mature plant structure along a built-in line of weakness in order to release its contents. Common among fruits (seeds), anthers (pollen grains) and sporangia (spores).
- dicotyledons or dicots
dicotylédones or dicotyles (French), dicotiledóneas (Spanish)
Group of flowering plants (angiosperms) with seeds containing two embryonic leaves (cotyledons).
- dioecious (plant)
dioïque (French), dioica (Spanish)
Plants that have male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on separate individuals.
- dry seeded (plant)
Crops with seeds enclosed in pods or husks, sometimes dried in place on the plant.
Basic vegetative structure of a plant before flower initiation and growth.
- genetic drift
dérive génétique (French), deriva genética (Spanish)
Variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce.
gymnospermes (French), gymnospermas (Spanish)
Group encompassing seed-producing plants. They are distinguished from angiosperms by the non-encased condition of their seeds, which develop either on the surface of scales or leaves. The largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives).
- gynoecious (plant)
gynodioïque (French), ginoica (Spanish)
Plants that produce mostly or only female (pistillate) flowers.
- heirloom (variety/seed)
variété patrimoniale (French), variedad agrícola antigua/variedad vestigial/cultivar vestigial/variedad patrimonial/reliquia vegetal (Spanish)
Varieties that carry a history of being passed down and preserved within a family or community over several generations through careful selection.
- heterosis or hybrid vigor
hétérosis (French), heterosis (Spanish)
Tendency of a crossbred individual to show qualities superior to those of both parents.
hétérozygote (French), heterocigoto (Spanish)
(of an organism) Whose cells contain two different alleles of a given gene. A heterozygous genotype can have a higher relative fitness than either the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive genotype – this is called a heterozygote advantage.
homozygote (French), homocigótico (Spanish)
That relates to a diploid organism that has a gene with two identical alleles. An individual that is homozygous-dominant for a particular trait carries two copies of the allele that codes for the dominant trait. An individual that is homozygous-recessive for a particular trait carries two copies of the allele that codes for the recessive trait.
- hybrid (variety/seed)
hybride (French), híbrido (Spanish)
Varieties that result from a controlled, deliberate cross made by human intervention between two genetically distinct parents in order to breed a desire trait.
indéfinie (French), indeterminada (Spanish)
Characterized by sequential flowering from the lateral or basal buds to the central or uppermost buds.
Characterized by growth in which the main stem continues to elongate indefinitely without being limited by a terminal inflorescence.
variété locale (French), variedad autóctona/variedad local (Spanish)
A domesticated, locally adapted, traditional variety of a plant species that has developed over time, through adaptation to its natural and cultural environment of agriculture, and due to isolation from other populations of the species.
- monocotyledons or monocots
monocotylédones (French), monocotiledóneas (Spanish)
Group of flowering plants (angiosperms) with seeds containing one embryonic leaf (cotyledon).
- monoecious (plant)
monoïque (French), monoica (Spanish)
Plants that have both male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on the same individual.
- open-pollinated (variety/seed)
variété à pollinisation libre (French), variedad de polinización abierta (Spanish)
Varieties that produce true-to-type offsprings that closely resemble their parents by sharing specific traits, provided no cross-pollination with other varieties was involved. They are naturally pollinated by insects, birds, wind or manually by humans.
- perennial (plant)
plantes vivaces (French), plantas perennes (Spanish)
Plants that live more than two years.
phénotype (French), fenotipo (Spanish)
Set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
photopériodisme (French), fotoperiodismo (Spanish)
Physiological reaction or developmental responses of a plant to the length of daylight and darkness periods it experiences.
- plant population
population de plantes (French), población de plantas (Spanish)
Consists of all the individuals of a given species that are grown in a particular area. The total number of individuals is referred to as population size.
spermatophytines or spermatophytes (French), espermatofitas or fanerógamas (Spanish)
Plants that produce seeds (seed plants). Also called phanerogams or phaenogams.
Prepared root of a biennial plant (such as beet or carrot) that is usually dug and stored over winter and replanted the next season for seed production.
- true-to-seed or true-to-type (plant)
pureté variétale (French), pureza varietal (Spanish)
Refers to plants whose seed will grow the same type of plant as the original plant or parent plant.
vernalisation (French), vernalización (Spanish)
Induction of a plant’s flowering process by exposure to the prolonged cold of winter, or by an artificial equivalent.
- volunteer (plant)
plante spontanée (French), planta espontánea (Spanish)
Unwanted plant growing from residual seeds from the previous crop.
- wet seeded (plant)
Crops that house the seed inside the fruit, embedded in its flesh.