By alphabetical order:
albumineuse/endospermée (French), albuminada/endospermada (Spanish)
That relates to, contains, or resembles albumen (an albuminous seed).
allochorie (French), allocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds induced by an external vector or agent (wind, water, animal or others).
anémochorie (French), anemocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds induced by wind.
anthropocorie/hémérochorie (French), antropocoria/hemerocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds through humans.
arille (French), arilo (Spanish)
An exterior covering or appendage of some seeds (as of the yew) that develops after fertilization as an outgrowth from the ovule stalk.
autochorie (French), autocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds by the plant without the help of an external vector.
ballochorie (French), ballocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds through the explosive dehiscence of the fruit.
barochorie (French), barocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds induced by gravity.
coléoptile (French), coleoptilo (Spanish)
Pointed protective sheath covering the emerging shoot in monocotyledons such as grasses.
cotylédon (French), cotiledón (Spanish)
Embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first to appear from a germinating seed.
diplochorie (French), diplocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds that takes place in more than one stage, generally by different methods.
dormance (French), dormancia (Spanish)
Evolutionary adaptation that prevents seeds from germinating during unsuitable ecological conditions that would typically lead to a low probability of seedling survival. True dormancy is referred to as a state in which seeds are prevented from germinating even under environmental conditions normally favorable for germination.
élaïosome (French), eleosoma (Spanish)
Fleshy structure riches in lipids and proteins attached to the seeds of certain plant species.
embryon (French), embrión (Spanish)
In seed plants, part of a seed that is made up of precursor tissues for leaves, stem, roots, and one or more cotyledons.
- endogenous dormancy
dormance endogène (French), dormancia endógena (Spanish)
Form of dormancy caused by conditions within the embryo itself, often broken down into three main subgroups: physiological dormancy (prevents embryo growth and seed germination until chemical changes occur), morphological dormancy (underdeveloped or undifferentiated embryo) and combined dormancy (seeds have both morphological and physiological dormancy).
endosperme (French), endospermo (Spanish)
Food-storing tissue around the embryo inside a seed, produced after the double fertilization of most of the flowering plants.
épicotyle (French), epicótilo (Spanish)
Embryonic shoot located above the cotyledons from which the first leaves emerge.
exalbuminée (French), exalbuminada (Spanish)
(of a seed embryo) Having no albumen.
- exogenous dormancy
dormance exogène (French), dormancia exógena (Spanish)
Form of dormancy caused by conditions outside the embryo, often broken down into three subgroups: physical dormancy (caused by an impermeable seed coat), mechanical dormancy (when seed coats or other coverings are too hard to allow the embryo to expand during germination), and chemical dormancy (includes growth regulators, etc., that are present in the coverings around the embryo).
germination (French), germinación (Spanish)
Growth of a plant contained within a seed, resulting in the formation of the seedling or emergence and development from the seed embryo of essential structures (complete root and shoot axis) indicative of the ability to produce a normal plant under favorable conditions.
hile (French), hilio (Spanish)
Scar or mark left on a seed coat by the former attachment to the ovary wall or to the funiculus (which in turn attaches to the ovary wall).
hydrochorie (French), hidrocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds through water.
hypocotyle (French), hipocótilo (Spanish)
Stem of a germinating seedling, located below the cotyledons (seed leaves) and above the radicle (root).
- intermediate seed
Seeds that do not fit either orthodox or recalcitrant seed categories. Tend to age faster than orthodox seeds when stored at conventional freezer temperatures (-20°C), having only a 5-year lifespan on average. Longevity of seeds increases when dried between 45 and 65% RH.
myrmécochorie (French), mirmecocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds by ants.
- orthodox seed
semence orthodoxe (French), semilla ortodoxa (Spanish)
Seeds which can be dried to internal seed moisture of less than 12%, stored at freezing temperatures, and survive during ex situ conservation.
plumule (French), plúmula (Spanish)
Primary shoot or stem of a plant embryo that is typically located at the end of the hypocotyl.
pyriscence (French), pyriscence (Spanish)
Adaptation to an environment in which fires are regular and where maturation and release of seeds is triggered, in whole or in part, by fire or smoke.
quiescence (French), quiescencia (Spanish)
Resting state of a seed in the absence of suitable germination conditions.
radicule (French), radícula (Spanish)
Embryonic root and first part of a seedling to emerge from the seed during the process of germination. Grows downward in the soil, with the shoot emerging from the plumule.
- recalcitrant seed
semence récalcitrante (French), semilla recalcitrante (Spanish)
Seeds that do not survive the effects of drying or temperatures less than 20°C during ex situ conservation. Seeds from fruit trees such as avocado, mango, mangosteen and lychee fall in this category.
scarification (French), escarificatión (Spanish)
Process of weakening, opening, or otherwise altering the coat of a seed to encourage germination.
sérotinie (French), serótina (Spanish)
Ecological adaptation exhibited by some seed plants, in which seed release occurs in response to an environmental trigger, rather than spontaneously at seed maturation.
stratification (French), estratificatión (Spanish)
Process of treating seeds to simulate natural conditions that the seeds must experience before germination can occur.
tégument (French), tegumento (Spanish)
Inner integument of a seed.
testa (French), testa (Spanish)
Outer, protective covering of a seed; commonly called seed coat.
vigeur (French), vigor (Spanish)
Seed properties which determine the potential for rapid, uniform emergence and development of normal seedlings under a wide range of field conditions.
zoochorie (French), zoocoria (Spanish)
Dispersal of seeds, spores or fruits by animals.