By alphabetical order:
cléistogamie (French), cleistogamia (Spanish)
Self-fertilization that occurs within a permanently closed flower.
- cross-pollination or outcrossing/outbreeding/allogamy
pollinisation croisée or allogamie (French), polinización cruzada or alogamia (Spanish)
Transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on a different individual of the same species.
- double fertilization
double fécondation (French), doble fecundación (Spanish)
Process involving the joining of a female gametophyte (embryo sac) with two male gametes (sperm).
gamétophyte (French), gametofito (Spanish)
Gamete-producing and usually haploid phase, producing the zygote from which the sporophyte arises.
- hand-pollination or mechanical pollination
pollinisation manuelle (French), polinización manual (Spanish)
Technique that can be used to pollinate plants when natural or open pollination is either undesirable or insufficient.
- inbreeding depression
dépression endogamique (French), depresión endogámica (Spanish)
A reduced biological fitness that detrimentally alters the plant’s ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Often the result of a population bottleneck.
- insect pollination or entomophily
pollinisation par les insectes or entomophilie (French), polinización por insectos or entomofilia (Spanish)
Form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plants, is distributed by insects.
- megagametophyte or embryo sac
mégagamétophyte or sac embryonnaire (French), megagametofito or saco embrionario (Spanish)
Female gametophyte produced by a megaspore.
méiose (French), meiosis (Spanish)
Type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
micropyle (French), micrópilo (Spanish)
Small opening in the surface of an ovule, through which the pollen tube penetrates, often visible as a small pore in the ripe seed.
mitose (French), mitosis (Spanish)
Type of cell division that results in two daughter cells, each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
nectar (French), néctar (Spanish)
Sugary fluid secreted by plants, especially within flowers to encourage pollination by insects and other animals.
parthénocarpie (French), partenocarpia (Spanish)
Natural or artificially induced production of fruit without the fertilization of ovules, making the fruit seedless.
- polar nucleus
noyau polaire (French), núcleo polar (Spanish)
Either of the two nuclei of a seed plant embryo sac that are destined to form endosperm.
- pollen (grains)
pollen (French), polen (Spanish)
Fine powdery substance, typically yellow, consisting of microscopic grains discharged from the male part of a flower (in angiosperms) or from a male cone (in gymnosperms).
- pollen tubes
tubes polliniques (French), tubos polínicos (Spanish)
Hollow tube which develops from a pollen grain when deposited on the stigma of a flower. Penetrates the style and conveys the male gametes to the ovule.
pollinisation (French), polinización (Spanish)
Transfer of pollen from an anther to the stigma in angiosperms or from the microsporangium to the micropyle in gymnosperms.
- self-pollination or selfing/inbreeding/endogamy
auto-pollinisation or endogamie (French), autopolinización or endogamia (Spanish)
Pollination by pollen from the same flower (autogamy) or from another flower (geitonogamy) on the same plant.
suspenseur (French), suspensorio (Spanish)
Group or chain of cells that is produced from the zygote of a seed plant and serves to push the developing embryo into the endosperm.
- wind pollination or anemophily
pollinisation par le vent or anémophilie (French), polinización por el viento or anemofilia (Spanish)
Form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.
zygote (French), cigoto (Spanish)
Diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes.