Pollination and fertilization

By alphabetical order:

  • cleistogamy
    cléistogamie (French), cleistogamia (Spanish)
    Self-fertilization that occurs within a permanently closed flower.
  • cross-pollination or outcrossing/outbreeding/allogamy
    pollinisation croisée or allogamie (French), polinización cruzada or alogamia (Spanish)
    Transfer of pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on a different individual of the same species.
  • double fertilization
    double fécondation (French), doble fecundación (Spanish)
    Process involving the joining of a female gametophyte (embryo sac) with two male gametes (sperm).
  • gametophyte
    gamétophyte (French), gametofito (Spanish)
    Gamete-producing and usually haploid phase, producing the zygote from which the sporophyte arises.
  • hand-pollination or mechanical pollination
    pollinisation manuelle (French), polinización manual (Spanish)
    Technique that can be used to pollinate plants when natural or open pollination is either undesirable or insufficient.
  • inbreeding depression
    dépression endogamique (French), depresión endogámica (Spanish)
    A reduced biological fitness that detrimentally alters the plant’s ability to survive and perpetuate its genetic material. Often the result of a population bottleneck.
  • insect pollination or entomophily
    pollinisation par les insectes or entomophilie (French), polinización por insectos or entomofilia (Spanish)
    Form of pollination whereby pollen of plants, especially but not only of flowering plants, is distributed by insects.
  • megagametophyte or embryo sac
    mégagamétophyte or sac embryonnaire (French), megagametofito or saco embrionario (Spanish)
    Female gametophyte produced by a megaspore.
  • meiosis
    méiose (French), meiosis (Spanish)
    Type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
  • micropyle
    micropyle (French), micrópilo (Spanish)
    Small opening in the surface of an ovule, through which the pollen tube penetrates, often visible as a small pore in the ripe seed.
  • mitosis
    mitose (French), mitosis (Spanish)
    Type of cell division that results in two daughter cells, each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
  • nectar
    nectar (French), néctar (Spanish)
    Sugary fluid secreted by plants, especially within flowers to encourage pollination by insects and other animals.
  • parthenocarpy
    parthénocarpie (French), partenocarpia (Spanish)
    Natural or artificially induced production of fruit without the fertilization of ovules, making the fruit seedless.
  • polar nucleus
    noyau polaire (French), núcleo polar (Spanish)
    Either of the two nuclei of a seed plant embryo sac that are destined to form endosperm.
  • pollen (grains)
    pollen (French), polen (Spanish)
    Fine powdery substance, typically yellow, consisting of microscopic grains discharged from the male part of a flower (in angiosperms) or from a male cone (in gymnosperms).
  • pollen tubes
    tubes polliniques (French), tubos polínicos (Spanish)
    Hollow tube which develops from a pollen grain when deposited on the stigma of a flower. Penetrates the style and conveys the male gametes to the ovule.
  • pollination
    pollinisation (French), polinización (Spanish)
    Transfer of pollen from an anther to the stigma in angiosperms or from the microsporangium to the micropyle in gymnosperms.
  • self-pollination or selfing/inbreeding/endogamy
    auto-pollinisation or endogamie (French), autopolinización or endogamia (Spanish)
    Pollination by pollen from the same flower (autogamy) or from another flower (geitonogamy) on the same plant.
  • suspensor
    suspenseur (French), suspensorio (Spanish)
    Group or chain of cells that is produced from the zygote of a seed plant and serves to push the developing embryo into the endosperm.
  • wind pollination or anemophily
    pollinisation par le vent or anémophilie (French), polinización por el viento or anemofilia (Spanish)
    Form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.
  • zygote
    zygote (French), cigoto (Spanish)
    Diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes.